Aerospace World

July 1, 1997

Defense Scrutiny Grinds On

Defense Secretary William S. Cohen told reporters May 14 that he had formed a Task Force on Defense Reform to recommend additional ways to streamline Defense Department operations. The task force is an outgrowth of the six-month-long Quadrennial Defense Review, released May 19. [See “Snapshot of the QDR,” p. 17.]

Cohen said the QDR didn’t have time to take a thorough look at “significant reforms” in management structure.

What’s now needed, he said, is “to focus a good deal more analysis and effort” on the Office of the Secretary of Defense, its field agencies, and the military departments. “Essentially [OSD] has been growing like Topsy,” he reported.

The Secretary did note that the Pentagon had made progress in recent years through computerization and other practices, such as buying off-the-shelf technology. These steps had created more efficient operations, he said, but he emphasized the need to accomplish “much more” in the way of reform. “There’s a great deal of redundancy in much of what we do,” he claimed.

Cohen said he expected to have the task force report its findings by November 30.

Panel Members Named

The Defense Secretary initially named seven business and defense experts to the task force, stating that they would work with DoD Comptroller John J. Hamre, who was slated to succeed John P. White as deputy secretary of Defense.

Michael J. Bayer, business–government relations consultant and former official in the Energy and Commerce departments.

David Chu, director of Rand’s Washington, D.C., office and former assistant secretary of defense, Program Analysis and Evaluation.

Rhett Dawson, president, Information Technology Industry Council.

James Locher, former assistant secretary of defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict.

Arnold Punaro, senior vice president of Corporate Development at Science Applications International Corp. and former staff director of the Senate Armed Services Committee.

G. Kim Wincup, a program director at SAIC and former assistant secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition and former assistant secretary of the Army for Manpower and Reserve Affairs.

Dov Zakheim, corporate vice president and director of the Center for Policy Planning, System Planning Corp., chief executive officer of SPC International, and former deputy under secretary of defense for Planning and Resources.

Cohen indicated he might add more members. The task force will collaborate with corporate leaders and the National Defense Panel working on an independent assessment of the US military.

C-17 Christened Bob Hope

In a ceremony April 22 at the McDonnell Douglas facility in Long Beach, Calif., the Air Force dedicated the thirty-second C-17 Globemaster III to entertainer Bob Hope. The 94-year-old comedian, who attended the dedication with his wife, Dolores, is the first individual for whom a new airlifter has been named.

Hope, who began his show business career in vaudeville and continued through 60 years of radio, film, and television, entertained American troops around the world for more than 50 years.

In naming the aircraft for Hope during the Air Force’s fiftieth anniversary, Air Force Secretary Sheila E. Widnall said that she couldn’t think of a better tribute.

“We thought we’d give you, in a sense, an airplane—an airplane which, like you, will go visit troops in some of the least enviable locations on the planet. After all, the folks crawling through mud and jungles don’t really expect to see this plane any more than they expected to see you—but the plane, like you, will show up,” she said.

The aircraft will be assigned to the 437th Airlift Wing, Charleston AFB, S. C.

USAF Forms Single Lab

Air Force Materiel Command announced in April that it had consolidated its lab operations in a single Air Force laboratory—the Air Force Research Laboratory. The move came as part of the Air Force response to an ongoing Congressional initiative to consolidate defense labs and test centers.

AFMC plans initially to retain its four existing labs at their current locations but place them and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under one commander.

Current research labs are Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks AFB, Tex.; Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, N.M.; Rome Laboratory, Rome, N.Y.; and Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The Air Force Office of Scientific Research is located at Bolling AFB, D.C.

Maj. Gen. Richard R. Paul, formerly AFMC director of Science and Technology, will command the new research lab. The AFMC Science and Technology staff will provide the core laboratory staff, augmented by personnel from the four existing labs.

AFMC officials expect the move to reduce manpower but stated it was too early to estimate how many or where positions would be cut. As part of an earlier streamlining move, the Air Force consolidated its lab structure from 14 independent facilities to four superlabs in 1991. The service is also under a Congressional mandate to cut 35 percent of its lab manpower by 2001.

Fuel Flow Problem Downed

HC-130P

The accident investigation report released April 24, on the crash of an Air Force Reserve Command HC-130P that claimed 10 lives, revealed that the aircraft’s engines ceased to operate for lack of fuel flow.

Col. Larry L. Landtroop, the lead accident investigator, stated that there was not enough evidence to determine why the fuel stopped flowing to the engines.

Portions of the aircraft wreckage, including the cockpit voice recorder, flight data recorder, and one engine, were recovered from the ocean floor in more than 5,100 feet of water by the Navy’s Deep Submergence Unit.

The HC-130P, carrying a 10-person crew and one passenger, was en route to NAS North Island, Calif., from Portland IAP, Ore., on November 22 on a routine overwater navigation training mission when the aircraft crashed into the Pacific about 60 miles off the coast of northern California. [See “Reserve Crash Claims 10,” February 1997 “Aerospace World,” p. 13.]

All 11 Reservists on board were assigned to the 939th Rescue Wing at Portland. The Coast Guard rescued one injured crew member.

Multiaircraft Simulation Revamps Training

USAF’s Armstrong Laboratory has demonstrated that it can link simulators for a variety of aircraft or other weapons at different locations to produce a “virtual battlefield” experience.

Armstrong’s aircrew training research division, based at the former Williams AFB, Ariz., demonstrated its distributed mission training concept at the USAF–Air Force Association’s Air Force Fifty celebration in Las Vegas in April. They linked flight simulators for four F-16s, two A-10s, and a C-130 to conduct a virtual air-drop mission over hostile territory—the first time the unit had tested a composite wing training scenario.

For the exhibit, eight simulators were crammed into one room. However, division officials stated they can use existing phone lines and defense computer networks to link simulators used by multiple aircrews at locations around the world. They have even used the system to hook up with Army tank simulators.

Officials believe the system, once fielded, will greatly enhance training. According to Maj. Reid Reasor, an Armstrong program manager, it is “still a couple of years away from where we want it. We want it to smell, act, and respond like a real jet. If it doesn’t, then pilots won’t accept it. . . . We’re really close, though.”

Tricare’s HMO to Reach GSUs

Pentagon health officials believe the Department of Defense, by early 1998, will have extended full Tricare benefits to some 165,000 personnel in geographically separated units within the continental United States. Tricare is DoD’s new managed health-care program.

The change will allow certain active-duty members, such as recruiters, and their families to enroll in Tricare Prime instead of being forced to rely on the higher-cost Tricare Standard.

Initially, the first regions to implement Tricare placed distance limitations on those who could enroll in Tricare Prime, the health maintenance organization–type option. Instead, those individuals had to rely on Tricare Standard, the fee-for-service option.

Last year, DoD began a test of expanded coverage in Region 11 (Oregon, Washington, and northern Idaho), the first to begin Tricare operation. The region originally had limited participation in Tricare Prime to those living within about one hour of a military treatment facility.

As other regions have set up their contracts, they have extended the Prime option to cover more beneficiaries no matter where they live. For example, Region 6 (most of Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana) added major metropolitan areas with significant DoD populations. Other regions have required justification for not making Prime available to everyone. The last three regions to open will stipulate Prime coverage for all eligible beneficiaries.

However, Air Force Col. Jerome P. Luby, DoD director of Tricare Operations and Policy, pointed out that it is sometimes difficult to create these kinds of contractual relationships—particularly in small, rural towns that have never heard of managed care. “We worked through most of those problems in Region 11, but extending Prime will differ in every region,” said Luby.

Mongoose Recovers Millions

A little-known, but increasingly effective, program has stopped the outflow of more than $6 million in retiree and annuitant pay disbursed each year to dead or ineligible people.

“Operation Mongoose,” as the program is called, currently is investigating other questionable payments totaling more than $11 million.

DoD Comptroller Hamre, who initiated the program in June 1994, mentioned this operation, as well as other financial reform efforts, during Congressional testimony in May.

Operation Mongoose was designed to detect and to stop fraudulent and erroneous payments to vendors or active-duty, retired, or civilian personnel. Using sophisticated computer technology to run complex matches, the Defense Finance and Accounting Service and Defense Manpower Data Center can identify anomalies that may indicate fraud. The DoD Inspector General then investigates the case.

In addition, Mongoose has enabled the Pentagon to help some retirees and annuitants resolve pay issues and receive thousands of dollars to which they were entitled.

According to DFAS Director Richard F. Keevey, Operation Mongoose may be an “after the fact” process to detect fraud, but another of the program’s goals is to reduce the vulnerability of the Pentagon’s computer network to intrusion.

Privatized Housing, 10 Years Later

In Massachusetts, privatized housing for military members is not just a concept but a reality. As the Pentagon begins to develop new initiatives to privatize its military housing, a 10-year-old effort at Hanscom AFB, Mass., seems to offer some valuable experience.

In 1986, Hanscom officials began a build-to-lease project to eliminate quickly a shortage of 163 housing units. The Claremont Development Corp. began construction in the spring and delivered the keys to the first townhouse-style single-family homes in March 1987. All 163 units, known as Patriot Village, were completed by November 1987.

Under the 1986 build-to-lease agreement, which committed the government to a 20-year lease, the contractor had to secure his own financing and build on or near Hanscom AFB.

At the end of 20 years, the Air Force can purchase the village at fair market value, continue the lease another 10 years, or turn the site over to Claremont.

Today, base officials state that a life-cycle economic comparison shows the village to be more cost-effective, when all construction and maintenance costs are considered, than it would have been under the standard military construction program. According to Claremont officials, the company considers the project a good investment and would be pleased to begin work on another.

Village residents also seem happy, citing spaciousness and fast maintenance service by the contractor. One noncommissioned officer who has lived in other Air Force base housing stated he and his family consider it “the best house we’ve had in 16 years” and declined to move when he was promoted to master sergeant.

FAA Clears Alaska Airspace Makeover

The Air Force received final approval from the Federal Aviation Administration on April 22 on its plan to modify the military airspace operating areas in Alaska.

The approval culminated four years of work begun by Gen. Joseph W. Ralston, then 11th Air Force commander and now vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Ralston invited Alaskans to take an active role in the modification process.

Many of the state’s residents accepted the offer and worked with the Air Force, creating what is now viewed as a model for civil-military airspace partnerships, according to Alaskan Command officials.

Working with Alaskan residents and special interest groups, Air Force officials were able to alter USAF plans to avoid potential problems, such as interfering with migratory caribou herds, which still provide subsistence for some native Alaskan tribes.

According to Lt. Col. Bob Siter, a charter member of the airspace initiative team, interaction with residents and civic leaders made the approval possible. “We made over 30 significant modifications and mitigations to our major flying exercise and routine readiness training programs, based on our positive interaction with the people of Alaska,” he said.

More Eyes on Gulf War Illnesses

The Pentagon announced May 1 that Defense Secretary Cohen had asked former Sen. Warren B. Rudman to conduct an outside review of DoD findings on Persian Gulf War illnesses issues.

In a letter to Rudman, Cohen stated that the Pentagon team working on the issues is “making steady and significant progress in [its] efforts to reconstruct events and to understand the factors that may have harmed the health of Gulf War veterans.” He also cited the more than 80 research projects under way.

Noting that the results of these investigations will soon be available, Cohen called on Rudman to make “whatever recommendations you believe appropriate, based on the findings of the investigations.”

Additionally, he asked Rudman to “pay attention to the cooperation between the Department of Defense and the intelligence community and suggest ways to improve the provision, handling, and use of intelligence information during battle.” The intelligence community, including the Central Intelligence Agency and DoD assets, has come under fire for failure to provide information it had possessed about chemical weapons in Iraq during the Gulf War.

The Great Flood

In the recent historic flooding that inundated the towns of Grand Forks, N.D., and East Grand Forks, Minn., Air Force and other DoD personnel—active-duty, National Guard, and civilian—responded in force.

Even before the Red River began its dramatic rise and overflow, airmen at Grand Forks AFB, N.D., 17 miles west of the city of Grand Forks, began establishing what became known as “Sandbag Central.” The base eventually set up 24-hour sandbag filling operations, as well as housing, food, medical care, water, and more to benefit the more than 60,000 people displaced by the flood.

Help also came from other Air Mobility Command units around the country. AMC and public health-service medical teams, AMC civil engineering troops, and AMC chaplains, along with supplies, power generators, and communications gear, were ferried in by USAF aircraft. Various Guard, Grand Forks AFB, and Coast Guard units flew more than 100 helicopter missions to evacuate nearly 1,700 flood victims.

Grand Forks AFB sheltered and fed more than 3,000 civilian evacuees. Some 700 displaced base families (1,200 people) found shelter with other Air Force members who lived on base. Base medical personnel helped evacuate about 300 hospital patients from the city to the base hospital and arranged immediate medical airlift for 50 critical-care patients to Minneapolis. Grand Forks AFB became the area’s medical management center.

And base civil engineers had to find alternate sources of water, since base water normally came from the city. Instead, Grand Forks AFB wound up supplying approximately 1.2 million gallons of water per day to the city.

USAF Bombers Ace Mine-Laying

The Air Force’s B-1B bomber added a new capability to its repertoire, and the venerable B-52 once again proved its worth as the two long-range aircraft supported the Navy with underwater mine-laying.

In April, B-1Bs from Ellsworth AFB, S.D., dropped Navy Mk. 62 Quick Strike underwater mines to test the sweptwing bomber’s capability in a role once performed primarily by B-52s. The Navy wanted to use the B-1Bs because of their large payload capability, compared to Navy aircraft.

A few days later in a US-NATO aerial mining exercise named Blue Harrier ’97, two Barksdale AFB, La., B-52s proved they could still get the job done. In fact, they were the only two aircraft participating in the mine-laying that were able to make it through rough weather to the target over the North Sea.

The B-52 crews flew 9,000 miles with two aerial refuelings on the 23-hour mission.

National Memorial Honors Six SPs

The names of six Air Force Security Police officers killed in the line of duty were added to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial in ceremonies May 12 in Washington, D.C.:

TSgt. Thomas L. Campbell was shot by a 16-year-old boy stealing a bicycle at Maxwell AFB, Ala., on March 26, 1978.

Civilian SP Robert R. Dover was killed March 18, 1979, at Kelly AFB, Tex., when a car ran through his guard post.

SrA. Robert Scott Gray was fatally stabbed while trying to apprehend trespassers on Clark AB, the Philippines, on February 6, 1978.

A1C Roy Lee Hursey was killed March 27, 1963, at Eielson AFB, Alaska, when an aircraft struck his guard gate.

Sgt. Stacy Edward Levay, a commissary security clerk at Andersen AFB, Guam, was killed January 1, 1992, while trying to stop a robbery.

SrA. Timothy Royce Riggs, assigned to Whiteman AFB, Mo., was electrocuted after touching his car, which had come into contact with a damaged power line after he stopped to render assistance at an accident on December 11, 1991.

News Notes

USAF Vice Chief of Staff Gen. Thomas S. Moorman, Jr., will retire on August 1. Lt. Gen. (Gen. selectee) Ralph E. Eberhart, commander of US Forces Japan, and commander, 5th Air Force, Yokota AB, Japan, was nominated to replace him.

Lt. Gen. (Gen. selectee) Richard B. Myers, currently assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, has been nominated to replace Gen. John G. Lorber, who retires August 1 as commander of Pacific Air Forces, Hickam AFB, Hawaii.

1st Lt. Joseph C. Thomas, 347th Wing, Moody AFB, Ga., ejected safely before his F-16 crashed on April 21 in an unpopulated area about seven miles southwest of Pearson, Ga., while he was en route from Moody to a training range.

1st Lt. Paul Murray, with the 27th Fighter Wing, Cannon AFB, N.M., ejected safely from his F-16 before it crashed during a routine training mission on May 12 about five miles north of Vaughn, N.M.

The Navy and the US Fish and Wildlife Service dedicated the island of Midway as a National Wildlife Refuge on April 3. Located about 1,250 miles northwest of Honolulu, Hawaii, and best known for the Battle of Midway during World War II, the island has been under Navy jurisdiction since 1903. After being closed for more than 50 years, Midway is now open to the public.

US and North Korean negotiators agreed in May to conduct three joint recovery operations to search for remains of Americans buried in North Korea and to begin joint archival investigations this year.

USAF navigator Lt. Col. Marcelyn A. Atwood made history March 21 when she became the first woman to command a training squadron, at NAS Pensacola, Fla., and the first Air Force officer to command a Navy squadron.

The R-model U-2 reconnaissance aircraft flew its last operational mission from Istres AB, France, on February 21 when Maj. Domenick Eanniello, 99th Reconnaissance Squadron, Beale AFB, Calif., flew Dragonlady in support of Operation Deliberate Guard. Beale’s four overseas detachments now fly the U-2S with a lighter, more fuel-efficient engine that allows the aircraft to fly higher and farther.

Lt. Col. Stephen T. Washington, Cannon AFB, N.M., and SMSgt. Richard E. Hauck, Kadena AB, Japan, received the 1996 Gen. Lew Allen, Jr., Trophy, the top award in Air Force maintenance, for their work in generating aircraft.

Air Force Special Operations Command, Hurlburt Field, Fla., won the service’s top three safety awards for 1996.

The Air Reserve Personnel Center, Denver, Colo., made the best use of its human resources to win the Air Force Association’s 1997 Verne Orr Award.

Hurlburt Field received the National Restaurant Association’s 1997 John L. Hennessy, Jr., trophy for the single-facility category.

The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization formed a joint program office for the national missile defense program on April 1. The new JPO is responsible for design, development, and demonstration of an NMD system, if an analysis of the ballistic missile threat to the US conducted at the end of its development phase determines an NMD is needed. It could be operational in 2003, according to a DoD release.

Robert Q. Fugate, a physicist at Phillips Laboratory’s Starfire Optical Range, Kirtland AFB, N.M., received a decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service for demonstrating the concept of laser adaptive optics—a key element of the Air Force’s Attack Laser aircraft program—to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. The accomplishment is akin to Nobel Prize–level research, said Maj. Gen. Richard R. Paul, commander of the service’s new Air Force Research Laboratory.

Reservists from the 916th Air Refueling Wing, Seymour Johnson AFB, N.C., dedicated one of their KC-135E aircraft to the Tuskegee Airmen in May. The refueler’s nose now displays a portrait of legendary Tuskegee Airman Lt. Gen. Benjamin O. Davis and a P-51 Mustang with the words “Lonely Eagles” and “Tuskegee Airmen” on opposite sides.

Lackland AFB, Tex., became USAF’s first repeat winner of the Commander in Chief’s Installation Excellence Award by earning it in 1996 and 1997.

Capt. Ron Brown, 613th Air Intelligence Flight, Andersen AFB, Guam, is the second Air Force member in a row to win the National Operations Security Individual Achievement Award. He won the award while with the 35th Fighter Wing, Misawa AB, Japan.

SSgt. Alfredo R. Guerrero, a law enforcement specialist at Edwards AFB, Calif., received the Non-Commissioned Officers Association’s 1997 Vanguard Award for the Air Force for his “heroic actions and lifesaving measures” following the bombing at Khobar Towers in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, on June 25, 1996.

After nearly 19 years in storage in the Arizona desert, the McDonnell Douglas YC-15 transport aircraft flew in April for the first time since 1978. It was developed as a possible follow-on to the turboprop C-130, but many technologies originally demonstrated on the YC-15, including its short-field landing capability, were later used on USAF’s new C-17 airlifter. McDonnell Douglas has leased the YC-15 back from the Air Force as a test-bed for advanced technologies for the C-17 and potentially for future airlift aircraft.

A B-1B from the 28th Bomb Squadron, Dyess AFB, Tex., became the first B-1B to reach the 4,000 flying-hours milestone on April 24. B-1B tail number 860132, Oh Hard Luck, took off with 3,999.5 hours, passing over the runway as it reached 4,000. The unit designated the bomber as its lead aircraft because of its reliability.

A McDonnell Douglas Delta II on May 5 successfully boosted five Iridium satellites into orbit from Vandenberg AFB, Calif.

SSgt. Todd Vangen, a radar approach controller at Ellsworth AFB, S.D., received the Gen. Gordon E. Blake Aircraft Save Award April 30 for saving a student pilot last year when her single-engine Piper Cherokee lost all power. A licensed pilot, Vangen was able to talk her through the necessary steps to restart the engine. He was assigned to Grand Forks AFB at the time.

MSgt. Jerry Sutton, Keesler AFB, Miss., earned the Secretary of Defense Productivity Excellence Award for his concept for a training program for the E-3 Airborne Warning and Control System aircraft. The concept’s workstation is also reconfigurable for the EC-130 Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center and E-8 Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System aircraft.

Lt. Col. Ivette Falto-Heck, Los Angeles AFB, Calif., and TSgt. Jose J. Hernandez, Tyndall AFB, Fla., won 1997 National Image Inc. Meritorious Service Awards for the Air Force, based on their efforts to increase opportunities for Hispanics in the military and in their communities.

The 2d Bomb Wing, Barksdale AFB, La., won the Omaha Trophy as the best aircraft unit in US Strategic Command for 1996—for the second time in the last three years.

Five Air Force Space Command teams won “best of the best” honors during Guardian Challenge. They were 1st Space Operations Squadron, Falcon AFB, Colo.; 320th Missile Squadron, Francis E. Warren AFB, Wyo.; 5th Space Launch Squadron, Patrick AFB, Fla.; 821st Space Group, Buckley ANGB, Colo.; and 20th Space Surveillance Squadron, Eglin AFB, Fla.

PACAF’s 3d Wing from Elmendorf AFB, Alaska, won honors at Readiness Challenge VI, which pits civil engineers, services, chaplain services, and public affairs personnel in 25 events, held at Tyndall AFB, Fla.

Obituary

Gen. Robert D. Russ, former commander of Tactical Air Command, died of cancer on May 23 in Shalimar, Fla. He was 64. Russ retired from active duty in 1991, shortly after the Persian Gulf War. As the Gulf crisis unfolded in 1990–91, the Air Force delayed his retirement by several months to keep in place one of its most experienced commanders. As a result, Russ completed nearly six years as commander of TAC, which later merged with Strategic Air Command to form Air Combat Command. Russ entered the Air Force in 1955 through the Air Force Reserve Officers Training Corps program at Washington State University. Throughout his 36-year career, he flew F-84, F-100, F-101, and F-4 aircraft, flying 242 combat missions in the F-4 during the Vietnam War.

The Departure of Kelly Flinn

Kelly J. Flinn, the Air Force’s first female bomber pilot, officially left Minot AFB, N.D., and the Air Force on May 29. The former first lieutenant had received notice on May 22 that USAF had denied her request for resignation with an honorable discharge in lieu of court-martial. Instead she received a general discharge.

The former B-52 copilot was charged with adultery, fraternization, lying to investigators, and disobeying a direct order. Air Force Secretary Sheila E. Widnall had forestalled Flinn’s May 20 court-martial by taking up a review of her request for resignation in what had become a politically charged case.

USAF Chief of Staff Gen. Ronald R. Fogleman, responding to Sen. Tom Harkin (D-Iowa) during a hearing on the Air Force budget on May 21, reminded Senators that Congress had established the Uniform Code of Military Justice. He emphasized, “This is not an issue of adultery. This is an issue about an officer who is entrusted to fly nuclear weapons who disobeyed an order, who lied. That’s what this is about.”

From the beginning, the Flinn case was headline news. Her supporters, including some members of Congress, keyed on the adultery issue, with many labeling the military as being out of touch with reality and with some even claiming gender discrimination. Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott (R-Miss.) claimed Flinn was being singled out and should receive an honorable discharge. Many female lawmakers took the position that the military unfairly targeted women.

However, the numbers do not support that argument. Last year alone, the Air Force court-martialed 60 men and seven women on charges including adultery.

In the view of the Air Force and its backers in Congress, Flinn’s supporters overlooked the most serious offense—disobeying an order.

The 26-year-old former lieutenant, a US Air Force Academy graduate and most distinguished graduate of her B-52 training class, seemed destined to set new standards of achievement for women in the military. However, Flinn made some serious mistakes for a military officer. The one that attracted most national attention was her affair with the husband of an Air Force enlisted woman.

To make matters worse, Flinn lied to investigators about the affair and refused a lawful written order to stop seeing the man. In addition, she had previously had a brief affair with an Air Force enlisted man.

Flinn arrived at Minot in October 1995. In July 1996, she began an affair with Marc Zigo, the base’s civilian soccer coach, who was married to Amn. Gayla A. Zigo. (Marc Zigo later said he lied when he told Flinn he was legally separated from his wife and had filed for divorce.)

Meanwhile, Zigo’s wife found a love letter from Flinn and confronted Zigo, who told her Flinn was stalking him. A noncommissioned officer talked with Flinn on behalf of Gayla Zigo.

In November, the service began its investigation of Flinn’s relationship with Zigo, which had come to light during another unrelated investigation. At that point—according to Flinn, who thought Zigo intended to marry her after his divorce—she and Zigo agreed not to tell investigators about their affair. Unknown to Flinn, Zigo instead gave them a written statement with complete details. At about the same time, Gayla Zigo accused Marc Zigo of involvement with a third woman and told him to move out. She filed for divorce. Zigo moved in with Flinn after he supposedly attempted suicide and said he couldn’t live without Flinn.

In December, Flinn’s squadron commander issued Flinn a written order to stay away from Marc Zigo. Flinn chose to ignore the order. She told the New York Times she had decided to try to salvage her relationship with Zigo.

In January, the Air Force filed its charges against Flinn. Investigators showed her the file of statements made by Zigo. Flinn then asked the Air Force for help to remove Zigo from her home. In February, Lt. Gen. Phillip J. Ford, 8th Air Force commander, Barksdale AFB, La., referred the case to court-martial.

On May 20, as Widnall delayed the trial to review Flinn’s request for resignation, she also considered a letter from Gayla Zigo asking for the maximum punishment.

Approving resignation in lieu of court-martial is not unusual. The Air Force approved 10 of 23 requests in 1994, 10 of 49 in 1995, and seven of 38 in 1996. However, the service did not grant an honorable discharge in any of those cases.

A general discharge carries no criminal sanctions but does levy a punishment. In this case, Flinn must repay the Air Force for the last year of her service obligation (valued at about $19,000), may not enter the Air Force reserves, and will not be eligible to receive any veterans’ benefits.


USAF Shifts Force Structure

The Air Force announced in April and May force-structure changes that will affect operations in 29 states during Fiscal 1998. Officials made the changes, listed below by state, to meet mission and efficiency adjustments, as well as Congressional requirements.

Alaska. The 517th Airlift Squadron at Elmendorf AFB will gain six C-130H aircraft from Yokota AB, Japan, and increase its military personnel positions by 278.

Alabama. The Air Force Doctrine Center will move from Langley AFB, Va., to Maxwell AFB, resulting in an increase of 55 military and four civilian positions at Maxwell.

Arizona. Davis-Monthan AFB will lose four A-10 and six OA-10 aircraft, which will move to other A/OA-10 units worldwide for backup or attrition reserve, as needed, and lose 96 military positions. Davis-Monthan will gain 21 military positions for the 612th Air Intelligence Squadron. Luke AFB will lose six F-16C aircraft and 88 military positions. Luke will also place 11 F-16C/D aircraft in attrition reserve.

Arkansas. Little Rock AFB will lose two C-130E aircraft and 75 military positions. The base will also redesignate 14 C-130s from combat support to training status, resulting in a loss of 70 military positions.

California. The 13th Intelligence Squadron at Beale AFB will gain six military positions. The 146th Airlift Wing (ANG) at Channel Islands ANGB will lose four C-130E aircraft with a loss of 11 full-time military, 125 drill, and 20 civilian positions. Air Force Reserve Command’s 4th Air Force will move from McClellan AFB to March ARB, which will gain 76 civilian positions. The Defense Commissary Agency will establish one of its regional headquarters at McClellan AFB, bringing in 145 civilian positions. The 20th Airlift Squadron at Travis AFB retires its last nine C-141Bs, completing a previously announced change and resulting in a loss of 396 military and 44 civilian positions. The same action reduces the 349th Air Mobility Wing (AFRC) by 292 drill and 51 civilian positions. At Vandenberg AFB, the Air Force has extended the Peacekeeper ICBM follow-on test and evaluation program for another year. Vandenberg will lose 109 civilian positions due to the Federal Work Force Restructuring Act of 1994.

Colorado. The 140th Wing (ANG) at Buckley ANGB will retire its remaining two T-43As, with a loss of 22 military and 50 drill positions. The 821st Space Group (ANG) at Buckley will gain 52 military positions. Falcon AFB will activate the Space Battle Lab, increasing base strength by 23 military positions. Under the 1994 FWRA, Falcon will lose 54 civilian positions. The 302d Airlift Wing (AFRC) at Peterson AFB will lose two C-130H aircraft. Peterson will lose 91 civilian positions under the 1994 FWRA.

Florida. The 33d Fighter Wing at Eglin AFB will lose six F-16C/D aircraft, leading to inactivation of one of its fighter squadrons and loss of 253 military positions. The base will establish the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Battle Lab, including 22 military and three civilian positions. Special operations squadrons at Hurlburt Field will lose one MH-53J and three MH-60G helicopters, resulting in a total loss of 104 military positions. Hurlburt will activate the Battle Management Battle Lab, including 22 military and three civilian positions. Patrick AFB will lose 102 civilian positions under the 1994 FWRA.

Georgia. The 52d Airlift Squadron will deactivate at Moody AFB, decreasing base aircraft by eight C-130Es and military positions by 425. The 41st and 71st Rescue Squadrons will move from Patrick AFB to Moody, giving Moody an additional 714 military and 19 civilian positions. The 41st will also gain two more HH-60 helicopters and 40 military positions. Robins AFB will gain four B-1B bombers and 113 additional military positions when the base receives its fourth E-8C Joint STARS.

Idaho. By taking over the electronic combat mission of the 366th Range Squadron, Mountain Home AFB, the Idaho ANG gains 132 full-time military positions. Mountain Home also gains one civilian and 24 military positions for the new Air Expeditionary Force Battle Lab.

Illinois. Scott AFB will gain 66 military and 20 civilian positions, based on USAF’s consolidation of air mobility forces under Air Mobility Command. However, the base will lose 132 military and 57 civilian positions when Air Weather Service consolidates with the USAF Global Weather Center at Offutt AFB, Neb.

Kentucky. The 123d Airlift Wing (ANG) at Louisville IAP will lose four C-130H aircraft and 11 military, 125 drill, and 20 civilian positions.

Louisiana. Under the 1994 FWRA, Barksdale AFB will lose 51 civilian positions.

Maryland. The Air Force Office of Special Investigations at Bolling AFB, D.C., will move to Andrews AFB, providing an increase of 119 military and 25 civilian positions at Andrews. However, Andrews will lose 49 civilian positions under the 1994 FWRA.

Mississippi. AFRC’s 403d Wing at Keesler AFB will transition from the WC-130H to the WC-130J. Keesler will also host consolidated communications training courses for the Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, increasing the base’s military positions by 71.

Nebraska. Offutt AFB gains two RC-135W Rivet Joint aircraft, along with 77 military positions. Formation of the Air Force Weather Agency brings 120 military and 48 civilian positions. Transfer of the airborne command post mission to the Navy results in retirement of two EC-135 aircraft in 1998 and the remainder in 1999. That move and other actions will cut 222 military and 84 civilian positions from the base.

Nevada. At Nellis AFB, six F-16C/D fighters used by the Thunderbirds will change from training to combat-coded aircraft. The 422d Test Squadron will lose four F-16C/Ds and one F-15C/D, including a reduction of 50 military positions. The 66th Rescue Squadron will gain 127 military positions for the combat search-and-rescue mission. The base will also activate the 11th Reconnaissance Squadron, gaining 246 military positions. It will lose 77 civilian positions under the 1994 FWRA.

New Jersey. USAF’s Special Operations Low Level mission will transfer to McGuire AFB, with 53 military positions, from Charleston AFB, S.C.

New Mexico. When the 27th Fighter Wing at Cannon AFB retires the EF-111 fleet, the base will lose 746 military and 12 civilian positions. Kirtland AFB will inactivate the Air Force Security Policy Agency, with a loss of 49 military and 15 civilian positions. Under the 1994 FWRA, Holloman AFB will lose 57 civilian positions.

North Carolina. ANG’s 145th Airlift Wing at Charlotte/Douglas IAP, will lose four C-130H aircraft, with a decrease of 11 full-time military, 125 drill, and 20 civilian positions. Seymour Johnson AFB will drop 57 civilian positions under the 1994 FWRA.

Ohio. Several actions at Wright-Patterson AFB result in a loss of 94 military and 362 civilian positions. AFMC took the heaviest cuts, losing 77 military and 277 civilian positions.

Pennsylvania. The 193d Special Operations Wing (ANG) at Harrisburg IAP will convert one EC-130E aircraft to backup status. The 913th Airlift Wing (AFRC) at Willow Grove ARS will lose two C-130E aircraft, with a decrease of 72 drill and 13 civilian positions.

South Carolina. The 437th Airlift Wing at Charleston AFB will gain 200 military and 16 civilian positions along with six new C-17s. The wing will also retire four C-141B airlifters, taking a reduction of 149 military and 16 civilian positions. The same aircraft changes will affect AFRC’s 315th Airlift Wing, resulting in an overall increase of 75 drill and 20 civilian positions. The loss of the Special Operations Low Level mission will decrease Charleston’s manpower by 53 military positions.

South Dakota. Reactivation of the 77th Bomb Squadron, Ellsworth AFB, and return of four B-1B bombers from attrition reserve will result in an increase of 369 military positions.

Tennessee. ANG’s 118th Airlift Wing at Nashville Metropolitan Airport will lose four C-130H aircraft, with a loss of 11 full-time military, 125 drill, and 20 civilian positions.

Virginia. The 30th Intelligence Squadron at Langley AFB will gain 53 military positions. As a result of the Air Force Doctrine Center move, the base will lose 10 military and four civilian positions. It will also lose 61 civilian positions under the 1994 FWRA.

Washington. At Fairchild AFB, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program will move to the Department of Commerce, with a loss of one civilian and 32 military positions. The 62d Airlift Wing at McChord AFB will begin to retire its C-141B aircraft, resulting in a decrease of 171 military and 13 civilian positions. As part of the C-141B retirements, the 446th Airlift Wing (AFRC) will lose 107 drill and 14 civilian positions.

West Virginia. ANG’s 167th Airlift Wing at Eastern West Virginia Regional Airport/Shepherd Field will lose four C-130H aircraft and 11 full-time military, 125 drill, and 20 civilian positions.

Wisconsin. AFRC’s 440th Airlift Wing at General Mitchell IAP/ARS will drop two C-130H aircraft.

Wyoming. Under the 1994 FWRA, Francis E. Warren AFB will lose 56 civilian positions.

Congressional News

QDR Sparks Panic Over Bases

Striking terror into communities around the country, Defense Secretary William S. Cohen said May 19 that the Pentagon’s Quadrennial Defense Review found a need for at least two more rounds of base closures. Not surprisingly, the topic consumed much of the initial Congressional hearings devoted to the QDR.

For some Congressmen, it provided a fresh opportunity to vent frustrations over the last base realignment and closure process. Many have complained for the past two years that President Bill Clinton politicized the 1995 BRAC process when he pushed for privatization of two Air Force depots rather than outright closure, as the BRAC commission had recommended.

Others questioned whether such closures or privatizations actually save money and doubted the wisdom of the Pentagon’s new request to end the 60-40 rule, which dictates that 60 percent of DoD’s depot maintenance work must occur in government depots and no more than 40 percent in private industry.

Throughout their testimony, Cohen and the service chiefs maintained that the military must trim excess infrastructure to pay for modernization. In their eyes, it’s either cut support tail or combat teeth.

The numbers are clear, they said. Since 1989, force levels dropped 33 percent and procurement funding about 67 percent. In that same period, infrastructure came down 26 percent worldwide and only 21 percent in the continental US.

Despite the numbers, one lawmaker after another hammered at the defense leaders with vows to oppose new base closures unless “politics” could be eliminated. To many, Clinton engaged in rank vote-buying when he decided to privatize the functions of the Air Force’s air logistics centers at Kelly AFB, Tex., and McClellan AFB, Calif., rather than close them.

Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.), who stated his support for additional BRAC rounds, complained that there is a perception, whether real or not, that the last round was politicized. Even so, Cohen repeatedly insisted—as has the Air Force—that the BRAC commission left the option open to either close the depots at Kelly and McClellan or privatize their functions.

But Cohen stressed that if Congress disagrees “with giving a commission this kind of discretion, then you can always restrict it in the future.”

The Defense Secretary also responded to several Congressmen who complained that “privatization in place” was not the same as privatization. He noted that the Air Force was now engaged in public/private competitions at both facilities.

When asked how the Pentagon could expect Congress to make a decision on future BRAC actions when the actual savings from the first four rounds were unknown, Cohen replied that although the costs “were underestimated in the past,” the Pentagon has learned from the previous rounds and can make better assessments.

The Pentagon now expects to save about $5 billion annually from the first four BRAC rounds. Cohen estimated each new round would produce about $1.4 billion per year after paying out initial costs.

Wanted: More Flexibility

During a subsequent QDR hearing, Sen. Charles S. Robb (D-Va.) asked the service chiefs to suggest possible changes Congress could carry out to make their jobs easier. Three stated they would like more flexibility to move forces around to become more efficient.

Gen. Ronald R. Fogleman, the Air Force Chief of Staff, said USAF, early in the drawdown, changed the complement of a fighter squadron from 24 to 18 aircraft, leaving the force spread out over more bases. He said that made sense at the time because of forces returning from overseas.

“Today it no longer makes sense,” he said, noting that he would like to shift aircraft around again to produce 24-aircraft squadrons. Legal constraints prevent him from doing so, however. “If I had the latitude to go do that, we save big bucks and we save manpower,” said the General.

The service chiefs were tackled on the National Defense Panel (NDP) analysis of the QDR. The panel of outside defense experts, in its critique of the QDR, said assumptions about savings from the two BRAC rounds, privatization, and other infrastructure reforms are tenuous and place the Pentagon’s modernization plan at risk.

Fogleman replied that the NDP probably made “a valid assessment, but we’re certainly well aware of that.” He added that he thought the services would be “more or less successful on all or some of them.” However, he stated that the greater risk to the QDR strategy and forces “is the long-term viability of the defense spending at the level that we have it.”


Snapshot of the QDR

The US must maintain its capability to fight two major theater wars at about the same time or risk losing its status as a superpower, according to the report on the Quadrennial Defense Review submitted to Congress on May 19 by Defense Secretary William S. Cohen.

The QDR proposed cuts to the Air Force’s F-22 fighter and E-8 Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System aircraft programs and the reduction of active fighter wings from 13 to 12, among other moves.

The QDR, Cohen wrote, determined that, if the US were to “forego” the two-wars-at-once capability, others would perceive the US to be backing away from its commitments, “weakening the web of alliances and coalitions on which we rely to protect our interests abroad.” Such a move would threaten “our standing as a global power, the security partner of choice, and as the leader of the international community.”

However, Cohen suggested the two-conflict strategy could be credibly maintained while trimming force structure and personnel of the armed forces by another five percent.

The cuts, if approved by Congress, would take large chunks out of tactical aviation programs, eliminate several dozen ships and submarines, reduce the size of the Army reserve forces, seek two more rounds of base closings, produce more “outsourcing” of support functions, and seek greater contracting efficiencies.

The QDR was the first major strategy and forces assessment since the 1993 Bottom-Up Review. The QDR cuts an additional 60,000 active and 29,000 reserve troops. The force would fall to 1.36 million in 2003.

The new strategy that emerged from the QDR can be summed up as “shape, respond, and prepare,” Cohen said. The future military, he argued, would be able to help shape events and world attitudes to US preferences, respond to current and near-term threats, and prepare for future threats by investing in modernization and the “revolution in military affairs.” The strategy, he said, “strikes a balance” between dealing with near-term threats and the need to modernize forces for the long-term.

Cohen’s QDR would cut production of the Air Force’s F-22 fighter by nearly a quarter, reducing the total run from 438 to 399 to fill out three, rather than the previously planned four, air-superiority wings. Moreover, the fighter would be bought at a slower pace than now planned. The Joint STARS fleet, once set at 19 operational aircraft, would shrink to only 13 airplanes, and further production of B-2 bombers would be forsaken.

The QDR proposed no reductions in development and production of the Air Force’s C-17 airlifter and space systems.

USAF would shift one of its 13 active fighter wings to reserve status, raising the number in Air Force Reserve Command and the Air National Guard to eight. Together with outsourcing initiatives, the measures would trim 27,000 active-duty blue-suiters from the rolls.

The Army would keep 10 active divisions but streamline headquarters and support units with a loss of 15,000 soldiers. Some reserve combat units would be shifted to support missions, since they are no longer needed to provide “strategic depth.”

The Navy would keep 12 carrier battle groups (11 active and one training) and 12 amphibious ready groups but give up 15 more major surface combatants and two more attack submarines than had been planned. If the Joint Strike Fighter arrives on time in 2008, the Navy would trim its planned buy of 1,000 F/A-18E/Fs to 548 and buy more of the stealthy JSF instead. If the JSF is delayed, the maximum F/A-18E/F buy would still be only 785 airplanes.

The Marine Corps would see “modest” cuts in troops and hardware. The QDR called for trimming 65 units from the Marines’ purchase of 425 MV-22 aircraft, but actual introduction of the tiltrotors into service would be accelerated.

Cohen insisted the QDR had not been driven by the enthusiasm to balance the federal budget by 2002 but recognized “financial realities” with which the Pentagon would have to live. Ignoring those realities has led to “unrealistic expectations,” program turbulence, and waste in the past, Cohen said.

The QDR forecast no emerging “peer competitor” to the US over the next 15 to 20 years, allowing the taking of “some risk” now to invest in future capabilities, he said.

QDR Force Structure Changes

FY 1997 (BUR)

FY 2003 (BUR)

FY 2003 (QDR)

Major Force Elements

USAF: Heavy bombers

202

187

187

Fighter wings, active

13

13

12

Fighter wings, reserve

7

7

8

Air defense squadrons, reserve

10

6

4

ARMY: Divisions, active

10

10

10

Divisions, reserve

8

8

8

Armored cavalry regiments, active

2

2

2

Enhanced separate brigades, reserve

15

15

15

NAVY: Aircraft carriers, active

11

11

11

Aircraft carriers, reserve

1

1

1

Air wings, active

10

10

10

Air wings, reserve

1

1

1

Amphibious ready groups

12

12

12

Attack submarines

73

52

50

Surface combatants

128

131

116

USMC: Expeditionary force, active

3

3

3

Expeditionary force, reserve

1

1

1

Source: DOD

QDR End-Strength Reductions

Service

Active

Reserve

Civilian

Total

USAF

26,900

700

18,300

45,900

ARMY

15,000

20,000*

33,700

68,700

NAVY

18,000

4,100

8,400

30,500

USMC

1,800

4,200

400

6,400

Total

61,700

29,000

60,800

151,500

*Additional cuts of up to 25,000 after 2000.

Senior Staff Changes

RETIREMENTS: B/G Richard T. Banholzer, M/G Lee A. Downer, M/G George B. Harrison, B/G Howard J. Ingersoll, L/G Ervin J. Rokke, B/G Thomas J. Scanlan, Jr.

PROMOTIONS: To be Lieutenant General: Stewart E. Cranston.

To be ANG Brigadier General: Tommy L. Daniels.

CHANGES: Col. (B/G selectee) Frank J. Anderson, Jr., from Dir., Contracting, ASC, AFMC, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, to Dep. Ass’t Sec’y (Contracting), Ass’t Sec’y of the Air Force for Acquisition, Hq. USAF, Washington, D. C, replacing B/G Timothy P. Malishenko . . . Col. (B/G selectee) Barry W. Barksdale, from Cmdr., 355th Wing, ACC, Davis-Monthan AFB, Ariz., to Cmdr., 37th Training Wing, AETC, Lackland AFB, Tex., replacing B/G Robert J. Courter, Jr. . . . B/G Robert J. Courter, Jr., from Cmdr., 37th Training Wing, AETC, Lackland AFB, Tex., to Dir., Plans, Hq. AFMC, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, replacing M/G Michael C. Kostelnik . . . M/G (L/G selectee) Stewart E. Cranston, from Cmdr., AFDTC, AFMC, Eglin AFB, Fla., to Vice Cmdr., Hq. AFMC, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, replacing L/G Lawrence P. Farrell, Jr.

M/G Thomas J. Keck, from Dir., Strategy, P&P, J-5, Hq. USSOUTHCOM, Quarry Heights, Panama, to Vice Cmdr., 12th AF, ACC, and Vice Cmdr., USSOUTHCOM Air Forces, USSOUTHCOM, and AF Component Vice Cmdr., USSTRATCOM, Davis-Monthan AFB, Ariz., replacing retiring M/G Nels Running . . . Col. (B/G selectee) Christopher A. Kelly, from Cmdr., 100th ARW, USAFE, RAF Mildenhall, UK, to Cmdr., 97th AMW, AETC, Altus AFB, Okla., replacing B/G (M/G selectee) David R. Love . . . B/G (M/G selectee) Rodney P. Kelly, from Dir., Plans, J-5, Hq. NORAD, Peterson AFB, Colo., to Dir., Ops., J-3, Hq. USSPACECOM, Peterson AFB, Colo., replacing retired B/G Thomas J. Scanlan, Jr. . . . M/G Timothy A. Kinnan, from Dep. Cmdr., 5th ATAF, Allied Air Forces Southern Europe, NATO, Vicenza, Italy, to Commandant, Air War College, AU, AETC, Maxwell AFB, Ala., replacing retiring M/G Donald B. Smith.

Col. (B/G selectee) Jeffrey B. Kohler, from Sr. US Rep., Allied Air Forces Central Europe, Ramstein AB, Germany, to Cmdr., 100th ARW, USAFE, RAF Mildenhall, UK, replacing Col. (B/G selectee) Christopher A. Kelly . . . M/G Michael C. Kostelnik, from Dir., Plans, Hq. AFMC, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, to Cmdr., AFDTC, AFMC, Eglin AFB, Fla., replacing M/G (L/G selectee) Stewart E. Cranston . . . B/G (M/G selectee) David R. Love, from Cmdr., 97th AMW, AETC, Altus AFB, Okla., to Dep. Cmdr., 6th ATAF, Allied Air Forces Southern Europe, NATO, Izmir AS, Turkey, replacing M/G William S. Hinton, Jr. . . . B/G Timothy P. Malishenko, from Dep. Ass’t Sec’y (Contracting), Ass’t Sec’y of the Air Force for Acquisition, Hq. USAF, Washington, D. C., to Dep. Dir., Acquisition, and Cmdr., Defense Contract Mgmt. Command, DLA, Fort Belvoir, Va., replacing retiring M/G Robert W. Drewes.

Col. (B/G selectee) Richard A. Mentemeyer, from Exec. Officer to CINC, USTRANSCOM, and Cmdr., Hq. AMC, Scott AFB, Ill., to Cmdr., 12th FTW, AETC, Randolph AFB, Tex., replacing B/G Garry R. Trexler . . . Col. (B/G selectee) Paul D. Nielsen, from Command Dir., Cheyenne Mountain Ops. Ctr., NORAD/USSPACECOM, Cheyenne Mountain AS, Colo., to Dir., Plans, J-5, Hq. NORAD, Peterson AFB, Colo., replacing B/G (M/G selectee) Rodney P. Kelly . . . B/G Timothy A. Peppe, from Dep. Cmdr., 16th AF, USAFE, and Dir., Combined Air Ops. Ctr., 5th ATAF, Allied Air Forces Southern Europe, NATO, Vicenza, Italy, to Cmdr., 31st FW, USAFE, Aviano AB, Italy, replacing B/G Charles F. Wald . . . M/G Richard H. Roellig, from Dir., Contracting, Hq. AFMC, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, to Cmdr., Ogden ALC, AFMC, Hill AFB, Utah, replacing retiring M/G Stephen P. Condon.

B/G Garry R. Trexler, from Cmdr., 12th FTW, AETC, Randolph AFB, Tex., to Dep. Cmdr., 5th ATAF, Allied Air Forces Southern Europe, NATO, Vicenza, Italy, replacing M/G Timothy A. Kinnan . . . Col. (B/G selectee) Scott P. Van Cleef, from Dep. Dir., Jt. Matters, DCS/Air and Space Ops., Hq. USAF, Washington, D. C., to Dep. Cmdr., 16th AF, USAFE, and Dir., Combined Air Ops. Ctr., 5th ATAF, Allied Air Forces Southern Europe, NATO, Vicenza, Italy, replacing B/G Timothy A. Peppe . . . B/G Charles F. Wald, from Cmdr., 31st FW, USAFE, Aviano AB, Italy, to Spec. Ass’t to C/S, USAF, for National Defense Review, Hq. USAF, Washington, D. C., replacing retiring M/G Charles D. Link . . . Col. (B/G selectee) Craig P. Weston, from Prgm. Dir., SBIRS, Office of the Ass’t Sec’y of the Air Force for Acquisition, Los Angeles AFB, Calif., to PEO, C3, AFPEO, Ass’t Sec’y of the Air Force for Acquisition, Hq. USAF, Washington, D. C.

SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE (SES) RETIREMENTS: James J. Mattice, Walter A. Willson.

SES CHANGES: Rita C. Sagalyn, to Sr. Scientist, Space Experiments, Phillips Lab Geophysics Directorate, AFMC, Hanscom AFB, Mass. . . . Earl J. Scott, to Ass’t Auditor General (Financial and Support Audits), Air Force Audit Agency Financial and Support Audit Directorate, March ARB, Calif. . . . Frank P. Weber, to Dep. Dir. for Log. and Business Ops., J-3/J-4, Hq. USTRANSCOM, Scott AFB, Ill.

50 Years Ago in Air Force Magazine

July 1947

On the cover: The aircraft is identified as a Republic “P-82” Thunderjet—a mistake, for which the magazine was later taken to task. It’s the P-84, of course, going into service with the Army Air Forces at Bangor, Me. It had recently set a new American speed record at 617.8 mph.

¦ The magazine reprints a speech to Congress by Sen. R. Owen Brewster (R-Me.), who points to diminished funding and falling aircraft production and says the US is becoming a “third-rate airpower.”

¦ For the first time since the war, the Aviation Cadet program is reactivated and opens to civilians. In July, the first 500 cadets begin the 52-week course leading to a commission and a pilot’s rating in the AAF. A second class of 500 will enter training in October.

¦ Howard Hughes, demonstrating a “spectacular use of wood,” puts his huge flying boat—which would be known to history as the Spruce Goose—through testing at Long Beach, Calif. The enormous airplane is constructed almost entirely of wood.

¦ AAF planners calculate a requirement for a 70-group Air Force with 400,000 personnel. Air Force Magazine says the budget provides for no more than 55 groups and perhaps 350,000 people. (By the end of the year, personnel strength will drop to 305,000.)

¦ Col. Hubert A. “Hub” Zemke, liaison between the AAF and the Russian Air Force, tells AFA members at the Alabama State Convention that “we have no problem with Russian people, but with their government.”

¦ Former WASPs, organized as the Order of Fifinella, begin compiling a directory of all who served as Women’s Airforce Service Pilots.